Database management is the system for managing information that aids the business operations of an organization. It involves storing data, distributing it to users and application programs and then modifying it if necessary and monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from being corrupted by unexpected failure. It is one component of a company’s informational infrastructure that supports decision-making and growth for the business as well as compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.
The first database systems were invented in the 1960s by Charles Bachman, IBM and others. They evolved into information management systems (IMS) that made it possible to store and retrieve large amounts of data for a broad range of applications, from the calculation of inventory to supporting complex financial accounting and human resources functions.
A database is tables that arrange data according to a particular schema, such as one-to many relationships. It makes use of primary keys to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. www.zonenmaan1638.nl Each table has a collection of attributes or fields that represent facts about data entities. The most widely used type of database today is a relational model created by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. The design is based on normalizing the data, making it easier to use. It also makes it easier to update data by avoiding the need to update many sections of the database.
Most DBMSs can support various types of databases, by providing different levels of internal and external organization. The internal level is concerned with the cost, scalability, and other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level determines how the database is presented in user interfaces and other applications. It may include a mix of different external views (based on different data models) and may include virtual tables that are created from generic data to improve performance.